IP Rating Explained
When choosing the correct protection for your cable trajectory (cables and fittings) it is important to choose protection that has the right Ingress Protection (IP) rating. You want the IP rating of the cable trajectory to match the required IP rating of your electrical equipment, system or process.
The IP rating is an internationally standardised indication from the IEC 60529 norm, which indicates in a clear manner to which extent it, in this case the cable protection system, offers protection against the penetration of objects (tools, dirt) dust and/or moisture. The IP rating is internationally acknowledged so you are always able to trust that it is safe to use specific products in combination with your cables or wiring in a specific environment or application. Based on the demands or requirements regarding the environment and stress (system, process or application) placed on your cable, the necessary IP rating for the cable system can be determined.
In this article we explain what an IP rating is. Further, we elaborate on the rating and discuss the two digits that make up an IP rating. To conclude we cover the most common IP ratings and the protection they offer.
What is an IP rating
As mentioned above an IP rating indicates to what extent an electric/electrical construction is protected against the penetration of objects, dust and/or moisture, as well as the possible danger for the user. An IP rating consists of a categorical code consisting of two digits. The first digit provides the level of protection (of people) against contact with moving parts and the penetration of objects/dust, the second the level of protection against several forms of moisture (drops, spray, submersion, etc.)
The two numbers
Number 1 (protection rate against contact and penetrating objects/dust)
0. No protection.
1. Protection against large objects. Protected against a large body part, such as a hand (incidental contact); or solid objects bigger than ⌀ 50mm.
2. Protection against medium objects. Contact with fingers and such. Protected against the penetration of solid objects bigger than ⌀ 12,5 mm.
3. Protection against small objects. The penetration of tools, thick wires etc. bigger than ⌀ 2,5mm.
4. Protection against pointy objects. The penetration of solid objects bigger than ⌀ 1mm (for example small tools and thin wires).
5. Protection against dust. Sufficient protection against dust, in such a way proper function is retained. Fully shrouded because the casing is fully closed.
6. Dust proof. Fully protected against dust. Fully shrouded due to fully closed casing.
Number 2 (protection rate against moisture)
0. No protection.
1. Drizzle tight type 1: protection against vertically falling drops (e.g. condensation).
2. Drizzle tight type 2: protection against direct sprays of water up to 15° vertical.
3. Spray water tight. Protected from sprays (10L/min.) on an angle from 60° to 60° from vertical.
4. Splash water tight. Protected from against water splashed under pressure (30kPa) from any direction (12,5L/min.).
5. Water proof. Protected from medium pressure water jets (100kPa) and large volume (100L/min.) from any direction.
6. Immersion proof. Protection against temporary immersion (1 m for 30 minutes).
8. Water tight. Protection against the effects of long term immersion under reported circumstances.
9. Moisture proof. Protection against a humidity rate of over 90% or spray from up close under extremely high pressure (8-10 MPa). All tests for a rating with the letter “K” come from the ISO 20653 and are not described in the IEC 60529.
(please note: when a digit is replaced by an x there is no rating for this particular component)
Most common IP ratings
The complete IP rating consists of a two-digit code system based on the above mentioned characteristics and their corresponding digits. Below you can find an overview of the most common IP ratings. In bold the ratings we use at Anamet Europe.
IP20. Protection against penetrating objects up to 12,5mm. Not water tight.
IP21. No openings larger than 12,5mm. Protected against drops.
IP23. No openings larger than 12,5mm. Protected against rain.
IP30. No openings larger than 2,5mm. Not water tight.
IP40. Resistant to pointy objects, not resistant against water.
IP44. No openings larger than 1mm. Water resistant, appropriate for use in shower or bath.
IP54. Resistant against dust and water.
IP65. Protection against dust and waterjets (appropriate for outdoor use).
IP66. Protection against dust, strong water currents and waves.
IP67. Protection against dust and immersion in water up to 1 meter and up to 30 minutes.
IP68. Protection against dust and can be used under water under agreed upon circumstances.
IP69K. Protection against dust and water, even in the case of steam and high pressure.
IP rating and electrical appliances.
The use of a standardised rating system ensures a clear and logical system which is easy to understand, follow and apply. This is specifically important in the case of connecting electrical cables to electricity supporting casings. The penetration of solid objects, dust or moisture will not only result in damage, but also in an increased level of risk for the user of the appliances or system/process. This is why it is important to think carefully about the environment and situation in which your electrical cables are used and any exposure that this could present. Be extra prepared for the possible penetration of objects and dust from less obvious sources. Consider for example condensation, steam, dust that gathers in hard to reach areas, but also corrosion and chemical damage when cables are placed in a challenging industrial environment. When in doubt always as the manufacturer.
Anamet Europe is more than happy to think along and advise you on which of our products have the correct IP rating for your application, so you can use them in a safe manner. You can get in touch with our sales department through our website: https://www.anameteurope.com/contact/, or call them at: +31 (0)20-5863586.